Dietary problems and complication noted in pregnancy and their management.
Dietary problems and complication noted in pregnancy and their management are so easy and common.
Nausea and Vomiting
Morning sickness or nausea is common during the 1st trimester of pregnancy and usually resolves around the 13th to 14th week of gestation when pregnant women vomit excessively during early pregnancy then a loss of protein, vitamin and minerals are released from the body of the mother. So, a supplementary diet with the adequate amount of nutrients is given to the mother.
The management of nausea and vomiting are___
Female who have fluid and electrolytic imbalance may need to get admitted to the hospital.
Small frequent dry meals of easily digested carbohydrate-containing food are usually tolerated best.
Liquid should be consumed between meals.
Fat are not digested properly so fat should be given less amount.
Self-satisfaction food item should be consumed which will make them feel good.
Pregnant women should be advised the importance of eating and should be suggested to consume as much as possible.
Skimmed milk is better than whole milk to give the mother.
It is different from classical diabetes mellitus usually develop after to 20 weeks of gestation.5-10% are pregnant women are generally attacked with gestational diabetes. The symptoms are almost same in case of gestational diabetes and those include glycosuria, elevated blood glucose level etc but hyperglycemia is not show savior in gestational diabetes.
The management of gestational diabetes are_
Less intake of starchy food as potato, rice and cereal products.
Less consumption of sweet and sugar.
Complex carbohydrate should be consumed but that should fulfill energy and carbohydrate requirement the mother and child.
PIH (Pregnancy Induced Hypertension)
PIH includes gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia or eclampsia studies conducted at NIN indicate that PIH is associated with higher incident of vitamin-A and protein deficiency resulting in poor pregnancy outcome. Gestational hypertension which occurs after mild pregnancy is a maternal blood pressure of 140/90 mm/hg with no protein- urea. Female with eclampsia or pre-eclampsia as a systolic BP of 140 mm/hg and diastolic BP of 90 mm/hg. The urinary protein level of pre-eclampsia is 300 mg/day is savory pre-eclampsia the systolic BP is 160 mm/hg and diastolic BP(D-BP) is 110 mm/hg and elimination of protein is up to 5 gm/day through urine.
In pregnancy consumption non-food item like clay, ice-cues, laundry starch, chalk, soap is called PICA. It has also been hypothesized that a defiance for the essential nutrient.
The management of PICA are_
Actual management of PICA is not known.
Consume proper nutrient in a meal.
Minerals content food intake during pregnancy such as calcium or iron.
Some time PICA can be seen in child.
During pregnancy, enlarged uterus gives pressure on the intestine and stomach which combined with the relaxation of the esophageal sphincter, may result in resent of foodstuff into the esophagus from the stomach.
The management of heartburn are_
Food items should be taken in limited amount before bedtime.
At one time heavy meals should not be consumed.
Drinking of fluids between meals should be done.
Mild pregnancy edemas usually develop in the 3rd trimester and it is completely different from the edema because of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Normally during pregnancy-induced hypertension. Normally during edema is noticed because of the pressure of the enlarging uterus on the vena cava, obstructive the return of blood flows to the heart.
In this case, no dilatory implementation or intervention is needed.
During pregnancy, leg cramp is one of the major problems which can be solved by Ca2+ supplementation.Mg2+ also relives the pregnant women from leg cramp.
Constipation is a common problem of pregnancy.
It is noted due to_
The pressure of enlarging uterus on the lower portion of the intestine.
Placental hormone relaxes the GI muscle
Fluid should consume in high amount for maximum retention of the H2O in the stool.So, the stool becomes less heard and evacuated easily.
Fiber-rich food such as whole grains, green leafy vegetables, whole fruits, cereals with covering should be conjured in an adequate amount.
Regular bowel clearance should be done.
Let night dinner should be done.
Before going to bed a glass of water or hot milk should be taken.
Fatty food, fried fruit. Junk foods should be avoided in daily meals.
It is common to hear pregnant women complain abou the change in their appetites.where as some women support a dislike of or total aversion to specific foods. Aversion is usually in pregnant women how does not wish to consume particular food.
Aversion are a physiological mechanism that protect fetus either from nutrient deficiency by promoting mothers away from low quality and monotonous food otherwise protects fetus from excess phototoxic substance present in the food this aversion is beneficial
The evidences that most commonly avoided foods or substances are staple foods, alcoholic beverages and coffee and cigarettes.